Psychological warfare

In today’s complex world, traditional warfare has evolved to include tactics that target the mind as much as physical strength. Psychological warfare and psychological operations (PsyOps) have emerged as powerful tools employed by governments, militaries, and other entities to manipulate perceptions, shape attitudes, and control behaviour.

Psychological warfare can be defined as the deliberate use of communication and propaganda to influence the thoughts, emotions, and behaviours of individuals and groups. Its primary objective is to gain a strategic advantage over opponents by exploiting their vulnerabilities, instilling fear, and undermining their morale. Psychological warfare operates on the principle that controlling perceptions can be as decisive as controlling physical assets.

Propaganda is a key component of psychological warfare and involves the dissemination of information, ideas, or rumours designed to shape public opinion and sway beliefs. It often employs persuasive techniques, appeals to emotions, and exploits cognitive biases to manipulate the target audience.

Deception plays a crucial role in psychological warfare, as it aims to mislead adversaries and create a distorted perception of reality. This can be achieved through false information, camouflage, or disinformation campaigns, sowing confusion, and undermining the credibility of opponents.

Creating fear and intimidation is a potent tool in psychological warfare. By instilling a sense of terror or insecurity, adversaries can be coerced into compliance or induced to make mistakes. Fear can be generated through the use of threats, demonstrations of military power, or psychological pressure tactics.

PsyOps, a subset of psychological warfare, focuses on using psychological techniques to influence target audiences in support of military and political objectives. PsyOps typically target civilian populations, soldiers, or enemy combatants and employ a range of tactics.

PsyOps campaigns may aim to undermine the credibility and morale of enemy forces or political leaders. This can be achieved through the dissemination of false information, highlighting internal divisions, or showcasing military superiority.

In the digital age, information warfare has become a critical aspect of PsyOps. This involves manipulating social media, spreading disinformation, hacking, and engaging in cyberattacks to influence public opinion, create division, or disrupt communication channels.

PsyOps often employ techniques to condition individuals or groups to act in desired ways. This can involve reward systems, psychological manipulation, or even coercive tactics to induce compliance or elicit specific responses.

The use of psychological warfare and PsyOps raises significant ethical and legal concerns. The deliberate manipulation of individuals’ minds and emotions can infringe upon their autonomy, freedom of thought, and psychological well-being. International humanitarian law and human rights frameworks seek to regulate and limit the use of psychological warfare tactics, particularly when they target civilian populations.

Psychological warfare and PsyOps have become integral components of modern conflict, both in military and non-military contexts. The ability to shape perceptions, control narratives, and influence behaviour has immense power and potential consequences.

A few notable examples of psychological operations (PsyOps)


During the Cold War, the Soviet Union was targeted by a sophisticated PsyOps campaign known as Operation INFEKTION. In the 1980s, the Soviet Union was facing growing concerns over the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The United States intelligence agencies took advantage of this vulnerability and spread disinformation suggesting that the virus was a biological weapon created by the U.S. military. This disinformation campaign aimed to undermine the Soviet Union’s global reputation and sow fear and mistrust among its population.

Operation Desert Storm

During the Gulf War in 1991, the U.S. military employed a range of PsyOps tactics to weaken Iraqi forces and influence the local population. One of the most notable strategies was the use of loudspeakers and radio broadcasts to demoralize Iraqi soldiers. The broadcasts included a mix of psychological messages, such as appeals to surrender, disinformation about the strength of the coalition forces, and audio simulations of bombings and troop movements. These PsyOps played a role in weakening the morale of Iraqi forces.

Leaflet Drops

Leaflet drops have been used extensively as a PsyOps tactic by Western forces in various conflicts. During the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, for example, the United States and its allies conducted widespread leaflet campaigns aimed at influencing both enemy combatants and civilian populations. These leaflets often contained messages intended to persuade enemy fighters to surrender, provide information on coalition activities, or warn civilians of impending military operations. Leaflet drops are designed to exploit the psychological vulnerabilities of the target audience and shape their behaviour.

The CIA and Iran

In the 1950s, the United States, through the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), played a role in a covert PsyOps operation in Iran. The operation, known as Operation Ajax, aimed to overthrow the democratically elected government of Prime Minister Mohammad Mossadegh. The CIA used various tactics, including spreading disinformation, manipulating media outlets, and fostering internal unrest, to create a sense of instability and discredit Mossadegh’s government. This covert PsyOps campaign contributed to the eventual ousting of Mossadegh and the reinstatement of Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, who was seen as more favorable to Western interests.

Radio Free Europe

During the Cold War, Radio Free Europe (RFE) was established as a powerful PsyOps tool by the United States. RFE transmitted pro-Western propaganda and information to Eastern European countries under Soviet influence. Broadcasting in local languages, RFE aimed to counter Soviet-controlled media narratives, challenge the legitimacy of communist regimes, and instil hope for democratic change. By providing uncensored news, cultural programming, and alternative viewpoints, RFE played a significant role in promoting dissent, fostering resistance movements, and ultimately contributing to the fall of communism in Eastern Europe.

Operation Gladio

During the Cold War, the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and NATO conducted a covert operation known as “Operation Gladio.” This operation involved establishing secret “stay-behind” armies in several European countries to counter potential Soviet invasions. These clandestine networks were involved in various activities, including psychological warfare, propaganda dissemination, and covert operations. The objective was to shape public opinion, maintain an anti-communist narrative, and prepare for potential resistance in case of an occupation.


The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in the United States operated the Counterintelligence Program (COINTELPRO) from the 1950s to the 1970s. While primarily aimed at suppressing domestic political dissent, COINTELPRO employed psychological warfare tactics to discredit and disrupt various civil rights, anti-war, and political organizations. Tactics included spreading false rumors, psychological harassment, and undermining the reputation and credibility of targeted individuals and groups.

Operation CHAOS

Another example of psychological warfare conducted by the United States was Operation CHAOS. Launched by the CIA in the 1960s, this operation involved the infiltration and surveillance of anti-war and civil rights groups during the Vietnam War era. The aim was to gather intelligence, manipulate public opinion, and disrupt the activities of these organizations by employing psychological tactics such as disinformation campaigns and the creation of internal divisions.

Operation Cyclone

In the 1980s, the United States conducted a covert PsyOps campaign in support of the Afghan Mujahideen during the Soviet-Afghan War. Operation Cyclone involved the provision of financial, military, and logistical support to the Mujahideen, who were fighting against the Soviet Union. Additionally, the CIA disseminated propaganda materials, including books, leaflets, and audio recordings, to rally support for the Mujahideen cause and to undermine the morale of Soviet troops. Operation Cyclone is often credited with helping to weaken the Soviet occupation and contributing to the ultimate withdrawal of Soviet forces from Afghanistan.

Arab Spring and Social Media

The Arab Spring uprisings in the early 2010s witnessed the emergence of social media platforms as powerful tools for PsyOps. Western countries, including the United States, utilized social media platforms to support pro-democracy movements, share information, and counter the narratives propagated by authoritarian regimes. By providing a platform for activists to organize, communicate, and share videos and testimonies of government repression, social media played a vital role in galvanizing protests and mobilizing global support. Western actors leveraged social media platforms to shape narratives, disseminate information, and support the aspirations of the Arab Spring movements.


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